Connect with us
Home » canada

Best Sports Betting Sites Canada – Compare Canadian Sportsbooks



With the Royal Assent of Bill C-218, Canadians will be able to reap the benefits of single-event sports betting as soon as Labour Day. While single sports betting is still in its infancy, Canada’s legal grey zone has allowed bettors to wager more than $14 billion annually with online betting sites. The best betting sites in Canada offer sports fans the opportunity to capitalize on pre-game lines, in-play odds, and futures markets to earn a profit.

Best Sport Betting Sites In Canada

  • PowBet – Sports betting site with online casino games, jackpots, and tournament
  • 10Bet – Great sportsbook with online casino games, lottery-style wagering, and an exclusive high-roller club 
  • Mansion Bet – World-renowned sportsbook that broadcasts favorable odds across all the premier sporting leagues and events
  • Sports Interaction – Reliable sportsbook that provides top odds across the board for all major sports
  • Bet365 – Trustworthy and reliable betting site that features an excellent sportsbook, online casino, and poker room 
  • BetVictor – Longtime oddsmaker with competitive odds and betting markets 
  • BetWay – Combination of sportsbook and online casino make it one of the best betting sites in Canada 
  • BetZest – Well-designed betting site known more for e-sports wagering 
  • Bodog – One of the most trustworthy online betting sites available in Canada offering sports betting, online casino games, and poker 
  • CyberBet – Known for e-sports wagering and its terrific user interface but falls short in terms of its sports betting markets 
  • Hopa – Relatively new betting site that offers sports betting, online casino games, and virtual sports 
  • Shangri La Live – No-frills design with excellent odds and some of the best promotional offers available in Canada
  • SportNation – Up-and-coming sportsbook with competitive odds and markets 

Reviews For The Top 5 Sports Betting Sites In Canada

Below, we’ll take a deep dive into each of the top five betting sites in Canada to determine how they separate themselves from the competition.

PowBet – Sports betting site with online casino games, jackpots, and tournaments

With jackpots, tournaments, and fun account features, PowBet gives members of all skill levels a chance to win money while betting online. Members at its sportsbook can cash in on competitive odds, a wide range of betting markets, and a sports betting jackpot worth over $20,000. PowBet also features a generous loyalty rewards program, weekly challenges, and sports betting tournaments that allow members to compete against one another for cash prizes.

For people that want to bet on more than just sports, PowBet also offers horse racing, virtual sports, and an online casino too. With online slots, table games, live dealer games, and more, PowBet has a massive catalog of over 3,000 games casino games for players of all experience levels. 

New members at its sportsbook can take advantage of a welcome bonus for up to $150 while new online casino players can get up to $750 in bonus cash plus 200 free spins. PowBet also delivers a wide range of promotions for both sports bettors and online casino players, including reload bonuses, cashback bonuses, and more. 

NHL Betting at Shangri La in British Columbia

10Bet – Great sportsbook with online casino games, lottery-style wagering, and an exclusive high-roller club

10Bet Sportsbook with online casino games

10Bet is the newest addition to the top five betting sites in Canada. It boasts one of the best-looking user interfaces of any online betting site. Equipped with competitive odds, extensive props and futures markets, and great promotional offers, it has emerged as one of the best up-and-coming sportsbooks on the web. Sports bettors benefit from essential features, including bet builder, cash-out options, and the ability to edit open bets after they have been made. 

In addition to its high-quality sportsbook, 10Bet also features an online casino, live casino games, and BetGames.TV, which combines live-betting with lottery-style games to offer an experience unlike anything else in the market. Whether you enjoy playing slot machines, blackjack, or live dealer games, 10Bet has everything that bettors are looking for in an online casino.

10Bet is also one of the few online gambling sites with an exclusive high roller club. The Ten Club provides high-stakes bettors a personal account manager, private WhatsApp service, VIP tournaments, a gifting team, and exclusive Ten Club offers. For bettors looking for the red carpet treatment, 10Bet offers the VIP experience that most people are accustomed to from brick-and-mortar casinos. 

Bet365 – Trustworthy and reliable betting site with an excellent sportsbook, casino, and online poker room

Bet365 Special Offers

Bet365 is one of the most reputable online betting sites available in Canada and offers arguably the most well-rounded sportsbook on the web. It delivers on all of the necessary features that bettors come to expect from an excellent online betting site. 

Sports bettors can benefit from competitive odds, a wide variety of betting markets, and strong promotional offers. Bet365 features a well-designed user interface that is fast and easy to use, making it one of the best in-play betting sites in Canada. It also supports live streaming in several sports, adding value for bettors who want to follow the action.

Like other betting sites available in Canada, Bet365 also offers casino games, horse racing, greyhounds, live dealer games, and online poker, making it a one-stop shop for all of your online gambling needs. However, mobile users may need to download more than one application to access the online casino and poker room.

At Bet365, new users can benefit from a 100 percent welcome bonus of up to $200. It also awards free bets, parlay bonuses, and early payout offers on almost every major sport.

BetWay – Combination of sportsbook and online casino make it one of the best betting sites in Canada

BetWay Promotion

For bettors looking to gamble on more than just sports, BetWay is a great place to start. The online oddsmaker has earned its due as one of the top betting sites in Canada by combining its online casino and sportsbook into one seamless product. Canadian bettors can wager on sports, esports matches, online casino games, live casino games, and more.

BetWay’s sportsbook offers competitive odds, a long list of props and futures markets, and one of the best online casinos on the web. In addition to a new customer deposit bonus of up to $200, bettors can also capitalize on free bets, parlay bonuses, odds boosts, and a daily spin on the prize wheel.

Meanwhile, new casino users can receive a welcome bonus of up to $1,000. Betway’s online casino also offers jackpots, free spins, tournaments, daily prizes, and more. Online casino players can enjoy a variety of table games, slots, live dealer games, and exclusive games that can only be found at BetWay. 

Bodog – Trustworthy online betting site that offers sports betting, online casino games, and poker

Bodog Online betting site

A longtime oddsmaker, Bodog is one of the most trusted online gambling sites and has been serving Canadian customers for over 25 years.  No matter what players are looking for, Bodog likely offers it and more. 

With a clean look, strong promotional offers, and some of the best odds on the market, Bodog has established itself as one of the best online gambling sites in Canada. At Bodog, sports bettors can capitalize on competitive odds and a wide variety of props and futures betting options or make their own custom bets with #NameYourPlay. 

In addition to sports betting, Bodog features horse racing, online casino games, live dealer games, and a poker room for players of all experience levels.

It gives away a separate 100 percent welcome bonus for its online sportsbook, casino, and poker room, allowing bettors to make the most of their initial deposit. Bodog also offers users a lucrative 200 percent Refer-A-Friend bonus and a loyalty rewards system that hands out points for playing at its sportsbook, online casino, and poker room. 

Shangri La Live – No-frills design with excellent odds and some of the best promotional offers available in Canada

Shangri La Live Bonuses

Shangri La Live might not own the best-looking website but it makes up for its design with some of the best odds and promotions in the online gambling industry. New sports bettors at Shangri La Live can benefit from a 100 percent deposit bonus of up to $500 and it offers a 100 percent welcome bonus of up to $1,500 for its online casino as well. Return customers can also take advantage of a 10 percent reload bonus and 10 percent weekly cashback at its online casino.

While the props and futures market offerings at Shangri La Live’s sportsbook are limited in some sports, it offers some of the best odds of any online betting site. It is also one of the few sportsbooks with a dedicated streaming section that allows bettors to live-stream the events that they wager on.

In addition to its sportsbook, Shangri La Live also offers a wide variety of casino games, live casino games, virtual betting options, and scratchcards, making it perfect for bettors of all experience levels. 

Canada Betting Sites Compared

Below, you will find a chart that details the different features across the best betting sites in Canada. 

Comparing Features At The Best Betting Sites in Canada

Cash Out In-Play Betting Parlay Bonus Odds Boosts Custom Bets Welcome Bonus User-Friendly Interface
Shangri La Live

Sports Betting In Canada 

In Canada, sports betting and gambling falls under provincial jurisdiction. 

Each province has determined its own legal gambling age. While some provinces like Alberta and Quebec allow gambling at 18 years old, most provinces and territories require players to be at least 19 years of age before gambling, placing a bet, or entering a casino. See the map below for a detailed breakdown of the legal gambling age by the province in Canada. 

Legal Gambling age by province infograph

Prior to the recent passing of Bill C-218, sports bettors were restricted to parlay bets and pool-buying schemes when wagering on sports.

This gave provincial lottery and gaming commissions the ability to monopolize the market. British Columbia started offering online lottery tickets and sports betting in 2004 and several provinces have also followed suit. Aside from a few inter-provincial agreements, bettors were not able to make wagers, claim winnings, or buy lottery tickets from outside of their home province.

Thanks to the Kahnawake First Nation of Quebec, the country also has its own fully licensed online sportsbook and casino. Sports Interaction, which is run by Mohawk Online Limited, is licensed and regulated by the Kahnawake Gaming Commission and has been serving Canadian players online since 1997.

However, the emergence of online bookmakers has caused some confusion and placed the law in more of a legal grey zone. While it is illegal to operate an online sportsbook or casino in Canada without a license, there is no language in Canada’s Criminal Code forbidding players from using offshore websites to place their wagers. 

That means Canadians are able to sign up, place wagers, and collect winnings from online betting sites without breaking the law. 

Canada Sports Betting Laws

While Canada’s sports betting laws don’t prohibit users from signing up with offshore sportsbooks, that doesn’t mean that bettors aren’t subject to specific rules and regulations. Before signing up for an online betting site, it is important to review the terms and conditions associated with creating an online betting account. Even offshore betting sites have rules for Canadian customers. 

Below, we’ll do a quick rundown of some of the most basic rules and restrictions that bettors can expect to see from Canadian betting sites. 


  • Must be at least 18 years old.
  • Must provide accurate account information
  • Must own a valid email address.
  • Must be a resident of Canada
  • Must have a valid Canadian address.
  • Must have a form of deposit and withdrawal accepted by online operators.
  • Must not have been previously banned from online sportsbooks and casinos.

Geofencing by Location

Due to the regulations surrounding gambling in different countries, most online betting sites have strict rules about the locations from which users can access their accounts. Canadians will have to be mindful of geofencing when crossing the border into the United States or accessing their betting accounts from foreign countries. 

Comparing Payment Methods At Online Betting Sites In Canada

For new users, completing payments with online sportsbooks and casinos can be a stressful process. However, there is no need to worry, as most online betting sites offer simple, safe, and secure payment options for both deposit and withdrawal. Below, we’ll compare some of the most popular payment methods available at online betting sites in Canada.

Comparing Payment Methods At New Betting Sites Canada

Bet365  ✅
Shangri La Live

How To Open A Betting Account in Canada

Setting up a betting account in Canada is simple. Just like when you open an account with any app or online service, you will be required to enter and verify some of your personal information. Below, we’ll guide new users through the process of opening a betting account in Canada at Bet365.

Step 1: Sign Up

To get started, head over to or download the betting app on your smartphone, tablet, or mobile device. To begin the signup process, simply click or tap “Join” and prepare for the next step.

Bet365 Menu

Step 2: Enter Personal  Details

Next, get ready to fill in some of your personal information before getting started. In order to open an account, Bet365 requires new users to fill out their name, date of birth, email address, phone number, and residential/mailing address.

Bettors will also be asked to set up a username and password, along with a four-digit security code that is used to verify your identity when contacting customer support. If new users have any bonus or promo codes, they will also be filled out during this step.

All of the information provided should be correct and up-to-date. If it is not, users may have trouble verifying the details of their account, which can lead to problems during the withdrawal process. 

Bet365 Open Account

Step 3: Choose A Deposit Method

Users tend to have their own preferences for deposit and withdrawal. So, the next step is choosing the payment method that is most comfortable for you. Bet365 offers a number of different payment options, including Visa, Mastercard, Credit/Debit Card, Instadebit, iDebit, ApplePay, Paysafecard, Click to pay, and wire transfer. While it is free to deposit at Bet365, the service or card that you use may charge a fee, depending on your method of choice. 

Bet365 Deposit Account

Step 4: Deposit Funds

After you’ve chosen a payment method, it is time to make your first deposit. For most deposit methods at Bet365, the minimum deposit is as small as $10. However, new users are encouraged to take full advantage of their welcome bonus by making a sizable initial deposit. With a 100 percent first deposit bonus of up to $200, choosing the right deposit amount can help bettors maximize their bankroll and get the most out of their sports betting experience. 

Bet365 Payment Method

Step 5: Complete Verification Process

It is important for betting sites to be able to positively identify their customers in order to comply with regulatory requirements and ensure the security of their user accounts.

Before making a withdrawal, users will have to verify their identity in the Know Your Customer (KYC) process. To do so, Bet365 may ask for a photographic copy of a government-issued piece of identification or a document confirming your residential address, such as a utility bill. Users can submit photos of their passport, ID card, driver’s license, or phone bill, among many other things. 

If you entered incorrect details during the sign-up process, you can access and amend them in the Members area. Some details such as your name, date of birth, and cardholder name cannot be altered for security reasons, so users will have to contact customer support directly if they require such changes.

Bet365 Verification

Step 6: Make A Bet

Now you’re ready to make your first wager. Bet365 is one of the most user-friendly online betting sites. On the home page, new bettors can find a scrolling list of current sports betting markets across the top of their screen along with some of the day’s marquee contests below. Navigate to the sports market that you are interested in betting on and click the odds or outcome for your selection. Add the amount that you want to wager, then click or tap place bet to complete your wager. 

Bet365 Place Bet Money Line

Bonuses and Promotions

Bonuses and promotions are a way for betting sites to attract new users and encourage them to start playing. Most sites will offer a bonus just for signing up but there are several other types of promotional offers that bettors can capitalize on. 

Before opting in or deciding to enter a promo code for a bonus offer, be sure to read the terms and conditions associated with the offer. Every sportsbook and online casino will have different rules and requirements to receive your bonus or withdraw your funds. 

Bonuses and Promotions

Rollover Requirements

Rollover requirements are one of the most common rules associated with bonus funds. This is generally a wagering threshold that a bettor must meet before the bonus is granted or the funds earned using the bonus money can be withdrawn. The rollover can be expressed as a multiple of the deposit or the deposit plus the bonus. It requires users to bet a certain amount of money and may only include bets made at or above certain odds before the terms and conditions are fulfilled. 

For example, at Bet365, you must roll over the full amount of your initial deposit before receiving your welcome bonus funds. This means that if you deposited $200 and received a 100 percent deposit bonus, you would have to bet through $200 at odds of 1.20 or greater in order to receive your bet credits.

Rollover Requirements

Types of Bonuses Offered By Betting Sites In Canada

Below, we’ll cover the different types of bonuses offered by the top betting sites in Canada. 

Welcome Bonus

Welcome bonuses are often the most common and most lucrative promotions available to new users in Canada. The best betting sites in Canada will either offer a 100 percent deposit bonus or a 100 percent matched free bet, giving first-time customers a chance to make the most out of their initial deposit. New users can exploit welcome bonuses across different sportsbooks and online casinos to maximize their bankroll. 

Free Bet

The top sportsbooks in Canada will hand out free bets for a variety of reasons. At times, users may have to opt-in or qualify for a free bet by adhering to the terms and conditions of the offer. Sometimes, that may involve placing an original wager on the match but free bets can also be awarded as part of a loyalty rewards system. For example, at BetWay, parlay bettors enter the Parlay Club, which rewards members with a free $10 bet every week.

Risk-Free Bet

Some sportsbooks will offer risk-free bets on particular sports contests. These types of rewards don’t require users to risk any of their own funds to qualify for the bonus bet. When using a risk-free bet, sportsbooks will often subtract the original stake from the overall return. This means that bettors will only receive the profits associated with their bet, which encourages users to make riskier selections. 

Parlay Bonus

Parlays are the bread and butter for Canadian bettors. Most bettors in Canada are used to making parlay bets on sports but the best online betting sites take the experience to another level by offering accumulator bonuses. Parlay bonuses tack on a certain percentage to your winnings based on the number of selections that are included in your original bet. This allows bettors to increase their overall returns when winning a parlay bet.

No-Deposit Bonus

While it is rare, there are some online betting sites that offer users a bonus without ever making a deposit. This allows new users to get their feet wet by making a few simple bets without risking any of their own money. Since these bonuses are offered for free, they usually come in smaller increments than some of the other bonuses on this list. 

Reload Bonus

Reload bonuses give existing users a chance to top off their accounts with added bonus funds even after their initial deposit. While reload bonuses are often not as lucrative as welcome bonuses for new users, they are a great way for existing users to boost their bankroll.

Loyalty Bonus

Loyalty rewards are special bonuses that are offered to loyal customers. The top sportsbooks and online casinos use loyalty bonuses to retain existing customers and incentivize them to continue to make their wagers in one place. Some betting sites use a points system while others simply reward users based on how often they play.

Cashback Bonus

While it might seem too good to be true, there are sportsbooks and online casinos that will refund a portion of your losses back at the end of every week. This bonus is usually offered as a percentage of the total loss incurred by a player over a certain period of time. For example, at Shangri La Live, users receive weekly cashback on 10 percent of all of their losses stemming from casino games. 

Free Spins

For online casino players, free spins can be one of the most exciting kinds of bonuses to receive. A free spin is one spin of a reel on a slot game where you do not have to pay to spin. Free spins award players with real money without having to risk any funds of their own. Many betting sites that offer online casino and live dealer games will offer free spins as part of their bonus offerings.

Canada Betting Laws Explained

The Royal Assent of Bill C-218 is slated to change the online betting laws in Canada. The Safe and Regulated Sports Betting Act is set to amend the Criminal Code and make single-event sports betting legal in Canada. 

Previously restricted to making parlay bets, Canadians will be able to make individual wagers on Game 6 of the Stanley Cup Finals, the SuperBowl, or make season-long bets on the futures market, among many other selections. This should also make legalized sports betting more profitable for Canadians, who can now reduce their risk by wagering on only one event rather than combining two or more selections into a single bet.

According to Paul Burns, CEO of the Canadian Gaming Association, these changes are scheduled to take place as soon as Labour Day. Some provinces, like British Columbia, are positioned to use their lottery and gaming commissions to offer single-sports wagering almost immediately.

The legalization of single-sports betting in Canada also means that Canadians will be able to make wagers at their fingertips with some of the world’s best sports betting sites. DraftKings, FanDuel, and BetMGM are among the entities expected to obtain a gaming license in Canada in the near future. These popular US brands are expected to become major players in Canada’s sports betting market and should be ready to launch before the end 2021. 

Sports Betting In Canada

Hockey is Canada’s national sport but it isn’t the only sport that Canadians like to bet on. Canada is home to professional sports teams in some of the world’s most popular leagues, including the NBA, NHL, and MLB, and the country also owns its own football league, the CFL. 

According to a report from the Media Technology Monitor (MTM), 77 percent of Canadians follow professional sports and 39 percent of Canadians follow amateur sports or competitions outside of the major professional sports leagues. With nearly 30 percent of Canadians watching sports every day, it should come as no surprise that bettors have an appetite for wagering on several different types of sports.

Below, we’ll go over some of the most popular sports to bet on in Canada.

  • Baseball
  • Basketball
  • Cricket
  • Ice Hockey
  • Football
  • Golf
  • Lacrosse
  • Soccer
  • Tennis
  • Volleyball

Parlay Betting In Canada

In Canada, parlay betting is legal and run through provincial lotteries. Pro Line, one of the most popular sports products in Canada, offers parlay betting for several sports leagues, including the NBA, NHL, NFL, and MLB. 

What Is Parlay Betting?

A parlay is a powerful tool that combines two or more selections into one single bet, increasing the potential risk and reward of a single wager. When making a parlay bet, the odds of each selection are multiplied together, increasing the overall return.

How Does Parlay Betting Work?

In order to win a parlay bet, all of the selections on your bet slip must be correct in order for the bet to be settled as a winner. If even one of the selections loses, the entire bet is settled as a loss. 

Horse Racing Betting in Canada

Horse racing has been present in Canada for over 250 years, so it should come as no surprise that it is one of the most popular events to bet on in Canada. Not only does Canada have its own racetracks but it also features its own version of the Triple Crown as well. 

Unlike the American Triple Crown, the Canadian events are all held on different surfaces. The Queen’s Plate is run on Polytrack, the Prince of Wales Stakes takes place on dirt, and the Breeders’ Stakes is on turf. Woodbine International, also a Canadian International Stakes, is another popular race held in October.

When betting on horse racing in Canada, bettors are subject to pari-mutuel betting. In this style of wagering, bettors are not betting against the house. Instead, they are betting against other gamblers that have wagered on the same race. 

Instead of selecting fixed odds, pari-mutuel betting places all of the wagers into a pool and rewards bettors that selected the right horse with a split of the profits. This can make it more profitable to take less popular selections or bet against the public. However, it can also make it complicated to calculate the potential return of a wager, since it will be dependent on the total prize pool and the number of bets placed on the winning horse. 

In addition to betting at the racetrack, bettors have access to some of the best online horse racing betting sites in Canada. Most online bettings sites will offer horse racing betting on all of the major events in the sport, including the coveted Triple Crown. Bettors can wager on the Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and the Belmont Stakes, among many other races from around the world.

While Canadians at the racetrack are limited to pari-mutuel betting, horse racing betting online opens up different options for bettors, who will be able to select the outright winner of a race at fixed odds. This means that bettors will be able to see exactly how much their bets payout before making their selections. 

10bet Horse Racing Betting

Online Casino Gambling in Canada

Casino games are one of the most popular ways to gamble in Canada. Bricks-and-mortar casinos have dominated the landscape but the move to single-event wagering will likely bring with it some major changes. 

Currently, there are 88 land-based casinos in Canada that offer full services, including table games. There are an additional 32 casinos that offer slots, video lottery terminals, and virtual table games. Caesars Windsor is one of the land-based casinos in Canada that also offers parlay-style sports betting in addition to traditional casino games. 

Don’t be surprised to see a major overhaul with several of Canada’s land-based casinos joining the online marketplace. With strong customer bases and loyalty rewards programs, these casinos will be able to offer more value than most online betting sites.

For example, Caesars already has a fully functioning online casino, sportsbook, and poker room available for US players. Just like at its land-based casinos, online bettors are awarded Caesars Rewards points for how often they play. With the framework already set, it is just a matter of time before more casinos follow suit, integrating online casino gambling in Canada as part of their offerings.

Online Casino Gambling

Online Poker In Canada

Canadians have always been welcome at the best online poker sites, including PokerStars and Bodog, but there has been some confusion surrounding whether playing online poker is legal in Canada. 

Like sports betting and online gambling, the rules for playing online poker in Canada fell into a legal grey area prior to Bill C-218. However, most of the legislation in the Criminal Code focuses on operators and there is no official language barring players from using offshore websites or online poker rooms. 

This means that poker players in Canada can still capitalize on cash games, multi-table tournaments, guaranteed prize pools, and sit-and-go tournaments from the top poker sites online. 

In the US, the legalization of online sports betting paved the way to bring online poker back into the mainstream market. While online poker wasn’t explicitly mentioned in Canada’s new gambling legislation, it is expected to follow suit, much like in the US.

bodog Online Poker

Are Sports Betting and Casino Winnings Taxed In Canada?

In Canada, winnings from sports betting, poker, and casino gambling are generally not considered to be income. Thus, gambling profits are considered to be tax-free, which is a major plus for Canadian bettors. 

However, there are some exceptions. If gambling is the main source of a person’s income, then it may be considered as a business income. By law, Canadians must declare business income. So, if gambling is your bread and butter when it comes to making money, you may be subject to tax on your winnings. 

For most poker players, casino gamblers, and sports bettors, that is simply not the case. That means Canadians can keep 100 percent of their gambling profits without fear of being taxed.

What Is The Best Betting Site In Canada?

For most sports fans, the best betting site in Canada will ultimately come down to personal preference. Most bettors tend to stick with the companies that they are most comfortable with. 

Signing up for an account with more than one betting site is one way that bettors can get the most out of their online gambling experience. Users with accounts at multiple betting sites can capitalize on better odds and markets, cash in on promotional offers, and take advantage of different casino games.

Great odds and bonus offers are essential for bettors that want to maximize their edge and add instant value to their bankroll. Speed and functionality are also important qualities to look for in a betting site, especially for those interested in-play betting, playing poker, and participating in live dealer games. Choosing a betting site with offerings that are tailored towards your style of betting can also help increase your overall return on investment. 

Whether you are a recreational gambler or serious about turning a profit, choosing one of the top betting sites in Canada is an easy way to get the most out of your online betting experience.

Shortly after graduating with an Honors in Business Administration, Nick turned his attention from traditional stocks and bonds to investing in the performance of sports teams. He uses a combination of advanced stats and historical data to create sports investment models to identify value and generate consistent profits. Nick has also contributed to Pistons Powered, SafeBettingSites, Winners And Whiners, and more.