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The NBA’s Subtle, Vital Scheduling Factor

Arena availability is a potentially large scheduling factor most don’t consider, writes Ben Dowsett.

Ben Dowsett



The discerning, invested NBA fan has no doubt consumed thousands of written or spoken words on schedules, fatigue and player rest over the past several months. It’s the hot-button issue in the league right now, with flames stoked by several recent stars resting prominent games plus widespread media attention. To some, it might even seem as if every possible stone on this subject has been turned up.

A quick news flash: Not even close.

That statement is true publicly, of course, but it’s also far truer within the NBA ranks than you might think. And while the majority of popular conversation rightly revolves around the more glaring issues like season length and player rest, the truest solutions to these issues might exist behind a curtain many don’t even factor into the conversation: Arena availability.

The casual fan likely doesn’t consider these things, but an NBA arena is far from just that. They are also home to dozens of outside events, from concerts to trade shows to circuses. These events help franchises stay profitable in a league that plays 41 home games in a 365-day calendar year.

Balancing them with basketball-related concerns, though, is a high-wire act. And it might play a pretty big role in the scheduling issues you’re so familiar with.

Some background first.

Adam Silver’s tenure as NBA commissioner has brought with it a newfound commitment to innovation and progress, and nowhere is this more evident than within the world of scheduling. What was much more of an analog system even just a few years ago has been digitized, both literally and figuratively.

For years until his retirement following the completion of the 2014-15 schedule, the NBA’s Matt Winick held the role of Senior Vice President of Scheduling and Game Operations – basically, the scheduling czar.

In the old system, Winick and the league prioritized games within a tiered structure: National TV games came first, around which the outlines of many longer road trips could take shape. Non-conference schedules were addressed next, including extended trips dictated by arena events like the famous Spurs “Rodeo Road Trip.” Finally, games involving shorter travel and similar regions filled in the blanks for the final product.

One of the several imperfections in this system included the simple rigidity of it, as Evan Wasch, current Senior Vice President for Basketball Strategy and Analytics for the NBA, explained in an appearance at the 2016 Sloan Sports Analytics Conference. Even with numerous revisions, sticking with a single template badly constricted schedule-makers’ ability to play with other options – of which there are a virtually endless number. This is captured perfectly by Wasch’s statement that the number of possible schedule combinations exceeds the number of atoms in the universe by a wide margin.

Under this system, teams would initially submit 50 non-consecutive open dates available for games, per league sources. For 41 home games in a 170-day time period, that’s not a lot of flexibility. Even with advances in computing and analytics added in regularly to supplement things, a lot was still falling through the cracks of a primarily manual system.

Winick’s “the group is me” comment in a 2010 ESPN article was likely more hyperbole than fact, but his retirement certainly was accompanied by the implementation of a more inclusive system. The NBA increased scheduling representation among important departments like basketball operations, marketing and strategy. They also partnered with a data collection and mining company called KMPG to produce a powerful, flexible computerized scheduling tool.

Rather than working from a single, ever-changing template like under the old system, the new program is constantly scanning through billions of potential schedules. It implements “user constraints,” specific bits of programming that allow the algorithm to prioritize certain factors within the schedule. As a simple example, the program can account for the league’s requirement that no game tips off within 22 hours of a previous game played by either team, regardless of time zones.

The system also uses a system including “fresh,” “tired” and “even” designations within individual games. This helps balance major scheduling advantages for one team or another in a given game.

Instead of 50 raw dates, the new process is much more fluid. Teams still submit a list of dates to the league by late February or early March of the previous year, per sources, but now they’re split into three groups: Available dates, blackout dates and “pending” dates, plus three “preferred” dates where teams can list a highly desired home game (this is a holdout from the old system, with a few minor blackouts).

These pending dates are especially common for arenas that also hold an NHL team. They’re often open dates that could become closed if the NHL attempts to schedule a game in that market, though they can exist for other reasons as well.

Once this initial submission is made, open dates are locked. They require specific league permission to schedule over, and will often come with a “trade-off” where the team sacrifices another preference in exchange.

Per a league source, this typically leaves the NBA with an average of between 60 and 70 open dates per team. It’s up to 100 for smaller, non-NHL markets, and as few as 50 or so for larger areas or teams that share an arena with the NHL.

That may sound like a lot of dates, but things get tight in a hurry when you consider all the variables at play. There are cross-country flight patterns, opponent rest schedules and numerous other factors to consider. Those busy markets with only about 50 available dates act as the lowest common denominator, and only so much of that can be made up by utilizing more open markets optimally.

Tinkering with any little detail could have untold ramifications – not just for one team, but for many at once. Moving a single game back a single day could set off a chain of events that makes 10 additional tweaks necessary for a half-dozen other squads. A league source put it perfectly while comparing the issue to the NBA’s other hot topic lately: “It’s like refereeing – you’ll never totally appreciate the job [until you do it].”

Still, the new emphasis has had a real effect. Teams played an average of 19.3 back-to-backs in the 2014-15 season, a number that’s down to 16.3 this season. Dreaded 4-in-5 stretches sat at 70 for that same 2014-15 campaign; there are just 20 this season, and decreases in preseason play to add days to the NBA calendar next season have the league confident these stretches can be eliminated altogether.

Is it enough, though? Some in the league may not think so, including Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban, who believes the teams still retain too much control.

“In the past, there were [more] events that generated more revenue for an arena than an NBA game,” Cuban told Basketball Insiders. “Those events are fewer and further apart.”

Cuban is right, in a broad sense. As Wasch noted in his Sloan appearance, smart developments in sales and marketing have allowed teams to maximize revenue from NBA games, even on traditionally less popular nights. Exactly how right Cuban is, though, could vary heavily between teams – a team source involved in scheduling in a different market estimated that around 50 percent of the non-NBA events in his franchise’s arena draw at least comparable revenue to an NBA game. The math will be different for every team.

There could be a middle ground here, one where increasing league scheduling power to a certain extent could still allow a large enough majority of owners to stay in the black.

In theory, the league could make sweeping changes without any initial owner approval. These rules are outlined in the league’s Operations Manual each season, and the league can unilaterally make these sorts of changes if they wish, per a source. They could theoretically require that all 170-plus days of the NBA season remain wide open for NBA games, and can only be filled in after.

Theory is nice, but this wouldn’t last long in practice. The 30 NBA owners also comprise its Board of Governors, and a defiant move like that from the NBA would almost certainly prompt a meeting of this group, during which a new bylaw could be created to overrule the league and allow NBA teams to schedule outside events. In truth, final say here is with the owners. “It’s the team’s option, rather than the league’s,” Cuban told Basketball Insiders.

Whether they could find success with a more compromised tweak is another question, and one that’s tough to answer without gauging each ownership group individually. Cuban’s comments indicate he’d surely be in favor of tighter team restrictions that still allow some level of outside event planning, but would many of his peers? It’s difficult to say, especially among a group of people that isn’t exactly known for letting potential profits slip through their fingers.

At the same time, maybe hard-liners in that ownership group would be taking too shortsighted an approach.

Player rest is such a huge issue currently in no small part due to major profit decreases the league sees when stars sit out marquee games to rest, and these themes can percolate down to less obvious areas as well. A hypothetical reality where the league could virtually eliminate 4-in-5s and drastically reduce back-to-backs would have a huge effect on player health; doing so without sacrificing a single contest in the 82-game schedule or compromising big national TV games could bring big profits for everyone. These profits might even outweigh any potential losses due to altered scheduling for outside events.

Make no mistake: Every bit of this is part of the league’s thinking process, along with dozens of other things none of us have thought of. Even calling them “the league” sounds ominous, but this isn’t a bunch of grumpy old men scoffing at the suggestion that they could improve – there’s a constant search for innovation under Silver, alongside a willingness to admit past errors. It doesn’t go unnoticed, either.

“We’ve been impressed with the league’s use of technology and commitment to transparency in the scheduling process,” Steve Starks, President of the Utah Jazz, told Basketball Insiders.

In this modern NBA, there’s more hope for these kinds of solutions than ever. There was a cooperative mindset on display when the league and the NBA Players Association avoided another lockout through smart collective bargaining, and this goodwill should continue to some degree or another. For the first time in what feels like forever, different sides of these arguments seem capable of rising above petty concerns and making real concessions for the good of both parties.

The league’s scheduling issues aren’t going anywhere, but know that there’s more going on in the efforts to stabilize them than you might have considered.

Ben Dowsett is a Deputy Editor and in-depth basketball analyst based in Salt Lake City. He covers the Jazz on a credentialed basis for Basketball Insiders, and has previously appeared in the Sports Illustrated and TrueHoop Networks. He can be found on Twitter at @Ben_Dowsett.


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NBA Daily: Second-Round Draft Steals to Watch

Several possible second round picks have a chance to make an impact at the NBA level, writes David Yapkowitz.

David Yapkowitz



The NBA Draft is upon us this week. The hopes and dreams of many basketball players will become reality. Each year there are players who are drafted in the second round who end up outperforming their draft selection spot.

A premium has been placed on draft picks in recent years. Even second round picks have become extremely valuable. For a team like the Golden State Warriors whose payroll might limit their ability to sign quality rotation players (veterans taking discounts to win a ring notwithstanding), smart drafting has seen them scoop up steals like Patrick McCaw and Jordan Bell. Both those players have emerged as key rotation guys on a championship team, and both were taken in the second round.

The second round is an opportunity to pick up overlooked young talent on cheap contracts. Sure, it’s rare to get a Manu Ginobili or an Isaiah Thomas or a Draymond Green that goes on to become an All-Star caliber player, but plenty of quality contributors can be found.

Here’s a look at a few guys who have a great chance at becoming second round steals.

1. Allonzo Trier – Arizona

Outside of DeAndre Ayton, there may not have been a more valuable player to the Arizona Wildcats last season than Allonzo Trier. He was the Wildcats second-leading scorer at 18.1 points per game. There have been questions about his supposed selfish style of play, but he’s been a solidly efficient player his three years at Arizona.

This past season as a junior, he shot 50 percent from the field and 38 percent from the three-point line. Over his three years in college, he was a 47.5 percent shooter from the field and a 37.8 percent shooter from the three-point line. He’s also an 82.3 percent shooter from the line. And he did dish out 3.2 assists this past season.

Trier is a scorer, plain and simple, an efficient one at that. Despite this, his name has failed to appear on many mock drafts. The few that actually project the second round as well have him being drafted near the end. At 6-foot-5 and 205 pounds, Trier has great size for a shooting guard in the NBA. A sixth man type scorer is probably his best projection at the next level.

2. Brandon McCoy – UNLV

The Runnin’ Rebels didn’t quite have such a noteworthy year, which might explain a little about why Brandon McCoy is flying under the radar. UNLV posted a 20-13 record and failed to make the NCAA Tournament. Despite that, McCoy managed to emerge as their biggest bright spot.

In his lone college season, he led UNLV in scoring with 16.9 points per game on 54.5 percent shooting from the field. He also pulled down 10.8 rebounds per game and was their leading shot blocker at 1.8 blocks per game. For a big man, he shot a semi-decent 72.5 percent from the free-throw line.

He has good size, he’s a legit seven-footer. He moves well on the floor and with some work, can be a very good defensive player. Part of what might be causing him to get overlooked is he doesn’t have much in terms of a mid-range game, a necessity for big men in today’s NBA game. But that can be worked on. At any rate, he can be a high energy big off the bench, good to come in and block some shots, grabs some boards and clean up around the rim. Every team could use a guy like that.

3. Devonte Graham – Kansas

One year ago, Devonte Graham’s Jayhawk teammate Frank Mason III was also being overlooked in the draft. Like Graham, the major issue working against him was his status as a four-year college player. Mason went on to be one of the bright spots for the Sacramento Kings, establishing himself as a legit NBA point guard.

This summer, Graham is looking to do the same. Mason was also a bit on the shorter side, coming in at 5-foot-11. Graham has little more size than that at 6-foot-2. He was the Jayhawks best player for most of the year, putting up 17.3 points per game while shooting 40.6 percent from the three-point line. He also dished out 7.2 assists per game.

Most mock drafts have consistently had Graham being drafted early to middle second round. Being a college senior, he has leadership abilities. He’d be perfect for any team looking for a solid point guard off the bench.

4. Chimezie Metu – USC

For much of the mock draft season, Chimezie Metu’s name appeared as a first round selection. But in recent weeks, as other names began to climb up the draft ladder, Metu it appears has fallen back into the second-round. It’s interesting though, as his skill set for a big man appears to project well in today’s NBA game.

He was the Trojans’ best player as a junior this past season. He put up 15.7 points per game on 52.3 percent shooting from the field. He pulled down 7.4 rebounds while averaging 1.7 blocked shots. Although the percentages may not reflect that, he has an improving jump shot. He’s quick and mobile defensively.

He’s got all the tools be able to guard the post as well as switch out and guard other positions if need be. With a little more work, he can be a good jump shooter. With the evolution of today’s game, Metu has the perfect build and talent to find success as a modern NBA big man.

5. Tony Carr – Penn State

Tony Carr has been a consistent second round pick in most mock drafts. There has been the occasional one here or there that had him being drafted at the end of the first-round, but the second round is most likely where he’ll hear his name called.

Carr was the best player for a Nittany Lions team that ended up winning the NIT. This past season as a sophomore, he put up 19.6 points per game and shot 43.3 percent from the three-point line. He was able to pull down 4.9 rebounds per game and he dished out 5.0 assists.

He can play both guard positions and create for himself or his teammates. There have been question marks about his athleticism and ability to defend at the NBA level, but all a team needs for him to do is come in off the bench, run the offense a bit and get a few buckets. He’s definitely capable of doing that.

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NBA Daily: Kawhi Leonard Would Look Good In a Knicks Uniform… In 2019

The Knicks need to take a page out of the Sixers’ book… and trust the process.

Moke Hamilton



The NBA world nearly stopped last week when reports circulated that Kawhi Leonard wanted out from San Antonio.

All of a sudden, within a few days, both he and Kyrie Irving were both reportedly open-minded about taking their talents to New York.

And while either (or both) of the two would look great as Knicks uniforms, they’d look much better in orange and blue in 2019.

After all, only a fool does the same thing over and over and expects different results.

Seven years ago, the Knicks the made mistake of trading their farm for a superstar caliber small forward. His name is Carmelo Anthony, and we all know how that story ended.

If you want to make the argument that Leonard is a better player than Anthony was at 27 years old, that’s your right, but one thing that not even Max Kellerman could argue is that smart teams simply don’t trade assets for players they could ultimately end up getting for free. That’s exactly why Paul George spent last season flanking Russell Westbrook instead of arguing with LaVar Ball.

So if Leonard or Irving wants to eventually take up residence in New York City, they can prove it… Next year.

If there’s one thing the Knicks historically imprudent front office should have learned from Magic Johnson and Rob Pelinka, it’s that.

This summer, after hiring David Fizdale, Scott Perry will have another opportunity to prove that the job at Penn Plaza isn’t too big for him, so it’ll be interesting to see whether he even publicly entertains the idea of attempting to make a splash this summer or whether he continues to hold steadfast to the belief that there are not shortcuts on the route to contention.

The right play for the Knicks is to follow the route that the Lakers took as it relates to Paul George—refrain from dealing valuable assets for players that you could sign for free. Danny Ainge hit home runs with Gordon Hayward and Al Horford and by essentially adding each of them to an existing core of young talent—and more importantly, refraining from acquiring either via trade—the Celtics now have an embarrassment of riches.

The Knicks don’t have those kinds of problems, and as it stands, have little aside from Kristaps Porzinigis going for them. With the Latvian unicorn expected to miss the majority of next season, they’ll probably have a lottery pick in the 2019 NBA Draft. That could be paired nicely with Porzingis, Frank Ntilikina and the ninth overall pick that they’ll have in the 2018 draft.

In other words, one year from now, the Knicks could have four of their own lottery picks under contract—Porzingis, Ntilikina, and whichever players they will have selected in 2018 and 2019. Between now and then, the team would be best served scouring the G-League and overseas markets to find cheap help that can contribute at the NBA level. Let the young guys play, let them develop and then carry them into the summer of 2019 with a clear plan in place.

That type of prudent management will not only help the Knicks in the long run, it will go a long way toward convincing soon-to-be free agents and player agents that Perry and his staff actually know what they’re doing.

If they play things right, and if the team managed to unload either Courtney Lee or Joakim Noah, they could open up the very real possibility of landing both Leonard and Irving, but instead of trading the farm for them, they’d have a realistic shot at signing them. They’d be adding them to the core instead of sacrificing it for them. Imagine that.

From where most people sit, Irving seems to have an ideal situation in Boston, and his entertaining the idea of taking his talents elsewhere seems curious, at best… But so did the choice of leaving LeBron James.

Irving has been consistently rumored as having real interest in playing in New York when he’s able to test the market next July, and depending on who you ask, there does seem to be a genuine level of concern in Boston that he could opt to take his talents elsewhere.

Growing up in the shadows of Madison Square Garden, the young guard knows better than most what winning in New York City would do for his legacy. At the end of the day, would one championship in New York make Irving a legendary figure among the likes of Kobe Bryant or LeBron James? Probably not. But one thing we can call agree on is that winning in a single championship in New York would do much more for Irving than winning a single championship in Cleveland or even a single title in Boston.

As it stands, fair or not, history will always look at Irving as the “other” player on James’ championship Cavaliers team, even though he was the one who made the biggest shot of James’ career.

And with the success of the Celtics this past season, truth be told, Irving helping lead the Celtics to a championship with the team’s current core in place wouldn’t necessarily cement his legacy in the way it would have had we not seen Jayson Tatum and Jaylen Brown show signs of being franchise-caliber players.

Because Irving is a shoot-first guard, he’ll continue to unfairly carry the reputation of being someone who doesn’t make his teammates better. He’s no Steve Nash, but he is truly special. Just don’t tell the national media that.

Because of the circumstances, he’s now in a bit of a catch-22. He’ll get less of the credit than he’ll deserve if the Celtics manage to win an NBA title and more of the blame than he’ll deserve if they fail to.

Still, even if Irving and/or Leonard end up elsewhere, the summer of 2019 will feature other free agents including Kemba Walker—the only “true” All-Star caliber New Yorker in the NBA—and Long Island product Tobias Harris. Jimmy Butler, Khris Middleton, Kevin Love and Nikola Vucevic, too.

Going from Leonard and Irving to Walker and Butler might seem like a sad story of riches to rags, but one could very easily make the argument that adding two high-quality All-Star caliber starters to a core featuring Porzingis, Ntilikina and two lottery picks would do more to make the Knicks contenders than unloading the cupboard in an attempt to bring one in.

If that sounds like exactly what the Celtics did, that’s because it is. The Lakers, too. There’s a reason why they’re the most winningest franchises in NBA history, it would seem.

One thing we know for sure in the NBA: there will always be marquee free agents. The Knicks just need to do a better job of being able to attract them.

So this summer, if Perry wants to continue to earn favor with Knicks fans with even half a brain, the best thing to do might actually be to do nothing.

In other words, if the Knicks have truly learned anything from the futility of their recent past, it’s that they should try to be more like Magic Johnson and Danny Ainge. 

So if word eventually gets to Perry that Leonard’s interest in the team is real, and if Irving decides that he wants to take up residence in his backyard to try to succeed where Patrick Ewing, Stephon Marbury and Patrick Ewing fell short, Perry’s response should be simple.

“Prove it.”

Either would look great in a Knicks uniform, but they’d look much better in a Knicks uniform in 2019.

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Ranking the Free Agents – Power Forwards

Basketball Insiders continues to evaluate the top free agents at each position. David Yapkowitz breaks down the power forwards.

David Yapkowitz



This week at Basketball Insiders, we’re taking a look at the top free agents set to the open market in just a few weeks. We’ve already covered the point guards, shooting guards, and small forwards. Now we check in with the power forwards.

There may only be a few power forwards who can probably expect a max or near max deal this summer, but there are quite a few guys that, for the right price, can end up being difference makers on a team next season.

Before getting into the actual free agents, here’s a look at what the salary cap numbers project to be. The NBA’s salary cap is expected to jump to $101 million this offseason. Based on that, here are the projected numbers for max contracts:

$25,250,000 for players with 0-6 years of experience
$30,300,000 for players with 7-9 years of experience
$35,350,000 for players with 10+ years of experience

Max/Near Max Guys

Julius Randle* – Los Angeles Lakers – Last Year’s Salary: $4,149,242

Julius Randle is definitely in line for a bigger payday this summer. The fourth-year forward turned in his best NBA season yet and was arguably the Lakers best player for most of the year. He played in all 82 games with 49 starts.

He put up career-high numbers across the board with 16.1 points per game on 55.8 percent shooting from the field. Most of Randle’s scoring comes in the paint where his “bully” ball type game has proven quite effective. He has an improving jump shot and at 23 years old, he still has his best years ahead of him.

He will be a restricted free agent, giving the Lakers the ability to match any offer he receives, but doing so could come at the expense of signing two max-level free agents as has been the team’s plan. It’s going to be an interesting dilemma for the Lakers as Randle most likely will attract interest right away from potential suitors thus forcing the Lakers hand early on in free agency.

Aaron Gordon* – Orlando Magic – Last Year’s Salary: $5,504,420

Aaron Gordon will also most likely receive a max or near max contract his summer. Early in the season when the Orlando Magic started out hot, Gordon was playing like an All-Star and even a borderline MVP candidate.

The Magic’s play then went rapidly south, but Gordon finished the season averaging 17.6 points per game, 7.9 rebounds and 2.3 assists, all career-highs. At the beginning of the season, he displayed a much improved three-point shot. The Magic have tried him at small forward before, but he’s a natural at power forward.

Gordon is also a restricted free agent allowing the Magic to match any offer. At age 22, he should also have his best years ahead of him. For a team like the Magic, in need of talent and quality young players, re-signing Gordon is probably ideal. But it’s also important to note that the Magic have a newer front office in place, one that did not draft Gordon. It’s also possible that John Hammond and Jeff Weltman might want to shape the roster in their vision.

Above Mid-Level Guys

Jabari Parker* – Milwaukee Bucks – Last Season’s Salary: $6,782,392

Jabari Parker is perhaps one of the most interesting and intriguing names on the free agent market. A former No. 2 overall pick, as a rookie Parker looked like he was definitely part of the Bucks growing young core. Unfortunately for him, injuries struck him hard as he suffered two ACL tears during a three-year period.

This season, he struggled a bit to find a role with the Bucks. There’s no question that if he’s healthy, he’d be quite an asset to any team. He represents the new breed of power forward with a perimeter game. Prior to his injuries, he’d almost assuredly be a max contract guy. It’s a bit difficult to imagine any team willing to pay him anywhere close to that now.

The Bucks have the option to match any contract offer he gets as he is a restricted free agent. It’s conceivable that they would do so as it will probably take a massive offer to pry Parker away from the Bucks. It’s unlikely that any team is willing to go that high.

Thaddeus Young** – Indiana Pacers – Last Season’s Salary: $14,796,348

Thaddeus Young could be another intriguing power forward on the free agent market. The thing with Young is he has a player option he could choose to exercise and become a free agent. Never an All-Star, Young has been a steady and dependable player his entire career.

His numbers were a bit under his career averages this season. He put up 11.8 points per game on 48.7 percent shooting from the field and he pulled down 6.3 rebounds. Nevertheless, he remained an important part of the Pacers rotation, especially on the defensive end.

Should he hit the open market, there likely wouldn’t be any shortage of suitors.

Derrick Favors – Utah Jazz – Last Season’s Salary: $12,000,000

Ed Davis – Portland Trail Blazers – Last Season’s Salary: $6,352,531

Montrezl Harrell* – Los Angeles Clippers – Last Season’s Salary: $1,471,382

Mid-Level Or Below Guys

Mike Scott – Washington Wizards – Last Season’s Salary: $1,471,382

Ersan Ilyasova – Philadelphia 76ers – Last Season’s Salary: $357,454

Trevor Booker – Indiana Pacers – Last Season’s Salary: $332,516

David West – Golden State Warriors – Last Season’s Salary: $1,471,382

Nemanja Bjelica* – Minnesota Timberwolves – Last Season’s Salary: $3,949,999

Kevon Looney – Golden State Warriors – Last Season’s Salary: $1,471,382

Mike Muscala** – Atlanta Hawks – Last Season’s Salary: $5,000,000

Amir Johnson – Philadelphia 76ers – Last Season’s Salary: $11,000,000

Channing Frye – Los Angeles Lakers – Last Season’s Salary: $7,420,912

Quincy Acy – Brooklyn Nets – Last Season’s Salary: $1,709,538

*Qualifying Offer (If made, the player becomes a restricted free agent.)
**Player Option (The player has the choice of whether to opt-in for another year with his current team or opt-out to become an unrestricted free agent.)

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